Black News and News Makers in History: Selma Burke

African American news from Pasadena - Black News and News Makers in History recognizes Selma Burke this week in Black history.A sculptor and educator, Selma Burke may be best known for her work of Franklin Delano Roosevelt on the American ten cent piece (dime). She was commissioned to create a profile of President Roosevelt after a national competition sponsored by the Fine Arts Commission in Washington, DC. The completed project, a plaque, was unveiled and installed at the Record of Deeds Building in Washington DC. She was the first African American sculptor to design a United States coin.

African American news from Pasadena - Black News and News Makers in History recognizes Selma Burke, designer of the dime image, this week in Black history.Selma Hortense Burke was born on December 31, 1900 in Mooresville, North Carolina, the seventh of ten children to Neal Burke and Mary (Jackson) Burke Cofield. Burke's interest in sculpting arose from her weekly Saturday whitewashing chores with a wash made of local clay. She discovered to her delight, that it could be molded into various whimsical shapes. Burke once recalled in Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia, "I shaped my destiny early with the clay of North Carolina rivers. I loved to make the whitewash for my mother, and was excited at the imprints of the clay and the malleability of the material."

Burke's artistic interest was in part fostered by her grandmother who had been an artist, but also by her father, who, in addition to being a railroad brakeman and African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Zion minister, was a chef aboard several oceangoing ships. He acquired numerous artifacts throughout his travels to the Caribbean, Africa, South America, and Europe. Two of her paternal uncles collected carvings and other religious artifacts while performing missionary work in Africa. When they died in 1913, Selma's family received their effects, and the African artwork became part of Selma's world.

Burke attended the Nannie Burroughs School for Girls in Washington, D.C., until she was 14-years old. At this time, William Arial, a white educator and superintendent of schools, befriended and tutored her despite criticism from whites in their segregated community. In addition to encouraging her to pursue the arts, Arial became her first patron. Burke then attended Slater Normal and Industrial School in Winston-Salem, some 50 miles from home. After graduation from the St. Agnes School of Nursing at St. Augustine College in Raleigh, North Carolina, Burke became a registered nurse in 1924.

The following year, Burke moved to Philadelphia to begin her career as a nurse and enrolled in the Women's Medical College to further her education by learning operating room techniques. At the same time, however, she financed her artistic pursuits with her nursing income. Burke also rekindled a romance with a longtime childhood friend, Durant Woodward, then a mortician, who tragically died of blood poisoning only 11 months after their wedding. Burke, a woman of great determination, continued with her studies until 1929 when the president of the school recommended her for a private nursing position with the dowager heiress of the Otis Elevator Company in Cooperstown, New York.

Burke's four year position with the ailing heiress led her back to art. Her employer encouraged her to continue her artistic pursuits. Amid the Great Depression when her colleagues and peers were hungry and homeless, Burke remained unscathed, saving her money and becoming accustomed to the cultural life of New York City, where she frequented Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Opera. After the heiress's death in 1935, Burke moved to New York and immersed herself in the city's burgeoning artistic movement. In order to hone her skills as a sculptor and to help pay her bills, she took a job modeling at Sarah Lawrence College.

Soon after her arrival in New York, Burke met Claude McKay, a poet, writer, and major figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Along with Max Eastman, McKay also co-edited the avant-garde literary and political magazine the Liberator. Through him Burke made the acquaintance of many other notables, including poet Langston Hughes, singer/actress Ethel Waters, poet and civil rights leader James Weldon Johnson, playwright Eugene O'Neill, and Nobel Prize- winning author Sinclair Lewis. Although Burke and McKay's relationship was turbulent at best, the couple soon married.

Burke immersed herself in work. She soon received an art scholarship to Columbia University where she earned a Master of Fine Arts degree in 1941. She also received $1,500 from the Julius Rosenwald Award for a paper she had written on sculpting materials. As her reputation grew, she also won the Boehler Foundation Award in 1936. As most artists did during that era, Burke journeyed to Europe in 1938 and traveled throughout France, Austria, and Germany. In Vienna, she studied ceramics with Polvoney, and in Paris studied the human figure sculpting with neoclassical sculptor Aristide Maillol.

Burke returned to New York confident in her talent as a sculptor, and dedicated herself to obtaining a degree in her first love--art. Unfortunately, Burke's marriage to Claude McKay became more unstable. They divorced, reconciled, and again divorced. Burke's dedication to her art carried her through the episodes of turmoil in her personal life, and she graduated with a Master of Fine Arts degree from Columbia University in 1941. In November of the same year, Burke mounted her first exhibit with classical compositions at the McMillen Galleries in New York.

When World War II erupted, Burke joined the navy and drove a truck in the Brooklyn Naval Yard, because, as she said in the New Pittsburgh Courier "I felt that during the war artists should get out of their studios." Unfortunately, however, she injured her back and needed to be hospitalized. During her stay at the hospital in 1943, she heard of and entered a national competition to create a profile portrait of U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt sponsored by the Fine Arts Commission in Washington, D.C. Burke was awarded the commission from a field of 11 other competitors--three of whom were black.

Burke originally had planned on creating the profile from photographs, but, unable to find an appropriate picture in newspapers or in library records, she wrote to the president requesting a sitting. President Roosevelt granted an appointment on February 22, 1944. Burke arrived at the White House with only some charcoal and a roll of brown butcher's paper and quickly produced several sketches. Burke once remarked on the encounter in the New York Times that she had been "so imbued with the greatness of the man that my first seven studies of him were so idealized they were not good."

The finished bronze plaque listed four freedoms above Roosevelt's face: freedom from want, freedom from fear, freedom of worship, and freedom of speech. It was then installed at the Recorder of Deeds Building in Washington, D.C. Prior to its installation, however, Eleanor Roosevelt and the members of the Fine Arts Commission were sought for approval. Burke remembered vividly Eleanor Roosevelt's criticism that the image looked too young. According to the New York Times, Burke responded, "I have not done it for today, but for tomorrow and tomorrow. Five hundred years from now America and all the world will want to look on our president, not as he was the last few months before he died, but as we saw him for most of the time he was with us--strong, so full of life, and with that wonderful look of going forward." On September 24, 1945, six months after President Roosevelt's death, Burke's portrait finally received a public viewing.

The source of Roosevelt's image on the dime has recently received much attention. John R. Sinnock, the chief engraver at the U.S. Mint, has his initials on the profile. The dime's head, however, is merely a mirror image of the plaque created by Selma Burke, with the exception of a few detail changes in the arrangement of Roosevelt's hair. Moreover, the National Archives and Records Administration of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library in Hyde Park, New York, stated that the dime portrait originated with the sculpture of Franklin Delano Roosevelt done by Selma Burke.

Determined that young minds would not be discouraged by lack of training or by lack of creative outlets, Burke launched a new career by teaching her craft in numerous schools, workshops, studios, and her own home. Her work at the Harlem Art Center in New York City influenced numerous nationally-recognized African American artists, including Robert Blackburn, Jacob Lawrence, and Ernest Crichlow. Burke also taught at a federally-sponsored Works Progress Administration (WPA) Program, the Friends Charter School in Pennsylvania, St. George's School in New York, and Old Solebury School in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, as well as Swarthmore College, Livingston College, the A. W. Mellon Foundation, and Harvard University. Students throughout the nation had the opportunity to hear Dr. Burke.

In October of 1949, Burke married Herman Kobbe, a famous architect and former candidate for lieutenant governor of New York. The couple soon moved to New Hope, Pennsylvania, long considered an artist's colony. Burke became active with the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, appointed by, and serving under, three different governors. In fact, Governor Milton Schapp proclaimed June 20, 1975, to be Selma Burke Day in Pittsburgh in recognition of her contribution to the arts in Pennsylvania.

In the early 1950s, Burke's marriage to Herman Kobbe unfortunately ended with his death. Feeling a strong sense of responsibility and the need to return something to her community, Burke opened the Selma Burke Art Center in Pittsburgh, in order to answer the community's demand for more artistic resources. In addition, she founded the Selma Burke School of Sculpture in New York where she adopted the theme, "a place to grow and a place to show." Burke's facility lived up to its motto by offering both day and night classes in drawing, painting, ceramics, sculpture, television production, and puppetry, as well as hosting exhibitions, concerts, lectures, and films.

In 1970, she earned a doctorate degree from Livingston College.

Before her retirement in the early 1980s, Dr. Burke's work appeared in over 25 individual and group shows. She was commissioned to create over 20 bronze and wood sculptures, and she received eight honorary degrees. Her works can be found in numerous private and public collections; several historically-black colleges and universities; the National Archives in Washington, D.C.; and at the U.S. Armory in New York. This American artist, as she categorized herself, summed up her life's work in Notable Black American Women: "I really live and move in the atmosphere I am creating." Dr. Burke died of cancer August 29, 1995, at the age of 94 near her retirement home in New Hope, Pennsylvania.

Her work history includes:

  • Sculptor;
  • A. W. Mellon Foundation Carnegie Institute, consultant, 1967-76;
  • Sidwell School, Haverford Coll., Livingston Coll., Swathmore Coll., instructor in art and sculpture, 1963-76;
  • Friends School, St. George's School, Forrest House, NYC, instructor in art and sculpture, 1930-49;
  • Selma Burke School of Sculpture, NY, founder, 1940;
  • Selma Burke Art Center Pittsburgh, founder, 1968.

The Pearl S. Buck Foundation Woman's Award was presented to her in 1987 for her professional distinction and devotion to family and humanity.

Notable works include Falling Angel; Peace; and Jim.

Her influences include Matisse and Frank Lloyd Wright. Selma Burke has received many awards and honorary doctoral degrees. Her pieces can be viewed in the Metropolitan and Whitney museums.

Selma Burke died of cancer August 29, 1995 in New Hope, Pennsylvania.

Compiled from www.anothershadeofcolor, http://www.tcnj.edu/~washing6/sculpture.htm, and http://www.answers.com/topic/selma-burke.


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